Best 40+ Electronics Project for Engineering Students in 2023
Let’s get started with the list of the Best 40+ Major & Minor Electronics Project Ideas for Engineering Students in 2023.
Choose your project based on your area of interest, and then build a prototype using any software. Developing a prototype will aid you in the real-time understanding of the circuitry’s basic operation. In the field of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, practice and imagination are the keys to success.
1. Water Level Controller using 8051 Microcontroller:
By sensing the water level in a tank, the Water Level Controller utilizing the 8051 Microcontroller project will contribute to automatically managing the water motor.
This device keeps track of the tank’s water level and turns on the motor when the tank is empty. When the overhead tank or container is full, the motor is turned off. On the LCD, the tank’s water level is displayed (Liquid crystal Display). We can prevent the water from overflowing by using this strategy.
2. Battery Level Indicator:
The status of the battery is shown by glowing LEDs on the battery level indicator. Six LEDs, for example, indicate that 60% of the battery capacity is still available. The LM3914 IC is at the heart of this battery level indicator circuit.
This IC accepts an analog input voltage and drives 10 LEDs linearly based on that voltage. Because the current is regulated by the IC, there are no resistors in series with the LEDs in this design.
3. Monitoring & Detection of Manholes using IoT:
Nowadays, manholes without caps or damaged manholes are increasing & these are not monitored properly which can lead to major injuries as well as deaths. To overcome this problem, the proposed system is implemented by monitoring & detecting manholes using IoT.
This project is designed with a set of sensors like a tilt and float sensor to monitor the cover of the manhole so that accidents can be avoided. This project involves a gas cover that will be used to monitor the gas produced by the mud systems for toxicity.
These sensors are essential for detecting various factors so that an SMS can be sent to an authorization number and all of the parameters may be updated on the IoT website.
4. IoT-based Reduction of Electricity Theft:
Energy theft is a huge issue right now since it is valuable, yet resources are limited, and electricity theft is on the rise. To address this problem, the proposed solution, which is based on IoT, is utilized to reduce electricity theft.
This technology is used to detect electricity theft, as well as to monitor energy usage and notify customers. To deploy the IoT-based network, this system makes advantage of Wi-Fi connectivity. If there is a disparity in the amount of electricity used, the data can be sent to a remote server over the internet.
5. Cell Phone Detector:
The mobile phone is the most commonly used device presently. The demand for cell phones has risen tremendously as communication technology has advanced. A cell phone broadcasts and receives signals in the 0.9 to 3GHz frequency band.
The Cell Phone Detector circuits work on the premise of detecting RF signals. The Schottky Diode is used to detect the mobile phone signal in the Schottky diode circuit because it has the unique attribute of being able to correct low-frequency signals with a low noise rate.
Mutual induction receives the signal when an inductor is positioned near the RF signal source. The Schottky diode rectifies this signal. This low-power signal can be amplified and then used to power any indicator, such as an LED.
6. Health Monitoring Wearable:
Health Monitoring Wearable Gloves can be worn and used to display the heart rate of any individual on the display mounted on the glove. The pulse of a person is sensed using a pulse sensor, which sends information to the Lilypad Arduino board to command the LCD to display the heart rate.
7. Smart Water Monitoring:
Smart Water Monitoring System based on the Internet or IoT that can detect the flow of water and record the volume of water that passes through the pipe over time. The information is then stored and analyzed in the cloud.
The Internet of Things allows us to keep track of how much water we use. In the future, this feature will be quite popular in structures.
8. Access Control with RFID:
One of the most often utilized methods for identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification). RFID cards are used in conjunction with RFID scanners to capture data on the card and subsequently perform an action, such as opening a gate, recording attendance, or charging money. By recognizing the matching RFID tag, an RFID-based authentication system can open and close a gate.
9. 3d Space Wireless Power Transferring Project:
The project is designed to transfer power in 3D space. A circuit is designed to convert AC 230V 50Hz to AC 20 kHz at 12V. BR1 is used to rectify AC 50 Hz to DC which is then again converted to AC by an inverter with the help of transistors that switches near 40 kHz.
This AC is applied to a high-frequency transformer. The output thus obtained from the transformer is provided to a resonating coil which acts as a primary coil of another air core transformer whose secondary coil is fed to the second rectifier and this is how it drives a DC load.
The secondary coil which is kept in resonance with the primary coil produces a voltage of about 12 V at 40 kHz. This output of the secondary coil is given to a 10 Watt lamp which glows at a certain distance from the primary coil.
Usually one cannot transfer a 50 Hz AC power by an air core transformer. Thus an air core transformer can be operated at 40 kHz by using this concept of wireless power transfer in 3D space.
10. Persistence of Vision:
When we see multiple images in rapid succession, our brain creates an optical illusion that allows us to identify motion. Persistence of Vision (POV) is a real-world effect that can be used for a variety of purposes such as advertising, clocks, and so on.
Using Arduino, create a POV display based on LEDs. When the display is turned at a high enough speed, letters that have been pre-programmed appear magically. To do this, Arduino programming techniques are used to synchronize the flashing of LEDs with the rotation of the display.
11. Industry Temperature Control System:
Our project seeks to monitor and control the temperature of equipment in industrial settings according to their specifications. On an LCD panel, it’s also used to show the current temperature. This is accomplished using an 8051 microcontroller.
To sense temperature, we utilize the IC DS1621. The IC DS1621 is a Digital Thermometer and Thermostat that provides a 9-bit temperature reading to represent the device’s temperature management. As a non-volatile user requested temperature setting, an EEPROM is used. An 8051 microcontroller is used to accomplish this.
The user’s input temperatures are collected via a set of switches. EEPROM -24C02 stores the switch input. The user can alter the minimum and maximum temperature settings by pressing the set button, allowing them to establish a temperature range.
We connect a relay from a microcontroller to a transistor driver in the same way we do for a DEC button. The relay’s contact point, such as a lamp, acts as a load. In real-time systems, a high-power heater will be employed instead.
The system runs on a 12V DC power source with a voltage of 5 volts, fed by a regulator that includes a transformer, rectifier, and capacitors.
12. Electronic Notepad:
Our project’s main goal is to build and present a useful electronic notepad. The notepad will have a touch screen and a storage memory to save the data that is written.
This notepad will allow you to send data to a computer whenever you need it. This data is transferred using software that understands the data and shows it on the screen. The notepad has a high sample rate and accuracy, which will aid in displaying the exact drawing you produced.
The circuit of the notepad is interfaced with a microcontroller and an SD card. The microcontroller uses a serial connection to deliver data to the computer’s SD card when you tell it to.
13. Human being Skin as Touch Screen:
From large and cumbersome handsets to small and portable sets, from keypad operation to touch screen capability, the mobile business has brought numerous innovative developments to the world of mobile.
This project intends to create a touch screen panel out of human skin, such as the arms, palms, or legs. All you have to do is wear a band around your wrist that will display all of the info from your phone on your skin and allow you to operate it like an iPhone’s touch screen.
To do further operations, simply enter the command on your skin, which is then read and executed by an acoustic sensor. The acoustic sensor is employed to analyze the precise tissue density and extra biometric data from your skin, to decide the kind of command you have specified.
14. Sensor Guided Robotics:
You will create three simple autonomous robots that will be guided by sensors. A line follower, which is programmed to follow a line, will be the first robot.
The path is detected by infrared sensors, which work on the principle of light reflection. You’ll create robots that can avoid/follow obstacles or light using the same sensors.
15. Wireless Mobile Battery Charger Circuit:
Despite numerous technological breakthroughs, we continue to rely on cable battery chargers. Each phone will have its battery charger with its design. As a result, battery chargers must be carried with you at all times to maintain power backup.
Consider a battery charger that automatically charges your phone. When you sit down for a cup of tea and place your phone on the table, it just charges it.
When your phone is placed near the transmitter, a simple wireless battery charger circuit charges it. This circuit can be used as a wireless power transmission circuit, a wireless mobile charger, or a wireless battery charger, among other things.
16. Electronic Letter Box:
An electronic Letter Box is a circuit that can be used to indicate whenever you receive mail (physical mail – like a letter). An LED is used as an indication in this Electronic Letter Box Project.
Usually, the LED stays ON. But when a letter is dropped by someone into your letterbox, the LED stops glowing i.e. it is turned OFF. This indicates that there is a letter in your letter box.
17. 9-Way Clap Switch Circuit:
This circuit allows you to control your home appliances without having to get out of bed. All you have to do is clap or blow in front of the microphone, and the device connected to the microphone will turn “ON” or “OFF.” The following are some of the circuit’s advantages:
⇒Up to three devices can be “ON” or “OFF” at the same time.
⇒You do not need to move from your current position to “ON” or “OFF” the gadget.
⇒It will also offer you a visual indication of whether the appliances are “ON” or “OFF.”
18. Carbon Monoxide Sensor Circuit Built with an Arduino:
The MQ-7 sensor will be used to detect carbon monoxide. This is a sensor that detects the effects of carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that is odorless, colorless, and tasteless, which means it cannot be detected by the senses of smell, sight, or taste. Except for the fact that they would start to feel terrible, a person would have no idea they were breathing in CO.
Headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, exhaustion, and a sensation of weakness are the most typical symptoms of CO poisoning. Confusion, disorientation, visual disturbance, syncope, and seizures are all neurological symptoms.
19. Temperature Data Logger:
A temperature data recorder is a portable measurement device that can automatically record temperature during a specified period. After the data has been recorded, it can be retrieved and viewed. The temperature will be recorded every minute in a CSV file by this gadget.
20. Rain Sensing Motorized Umbrella Bag Mounted:
Even when the umbrella is open, the user’s hands are free because the umbrella does not need to be carried separately. Even opening the umbrella is a fully automatic process that requires no manual effort. The following are some of the benefits of this rain-sensing contemporary umbrella:
⇒There is no need to carry the umbrella separately because it is attached to the bag.
⇒There’s no fear of forgetting or misplacing your umbrella.
⇒When the button is pressed, the door automatically opens and closes.
⇒Rain-sensing technology allows for automatic opening.
21. Auto Baby Cry Detector Sleep Music Player PIC:
This system provides a simple voice detection technique that can be used to construct a gadget capable of detecting a baby’s cry and turning on Baby sleep music automatically.
The PIC microcontroller is at the heart of the system. When the infant cries, the controller detects it using the microphone and activates the music and sleep mechanism, which emits a soothing sound and dims the lights, softly lulling the baby back to sleep.
A program is used in this experiment to detect an infant’s sobbing. It can identify a baby’s scream while disregarding other sounds like clapping, sneezing, fans, unexpected noises, ambient noises, and so on.
22. Women Safety Night Patrolling Robot:
In many places of the world, women’s safety is a major problem. For securing any site, the system uses cameras and a microphone installed on a robotic truck. The robotic vehicle follows a predetermined path and is equipped with sound and camera sensors.
While patrolling, it employs a predetermined line to follow. If the sound is detected, it stops at specific points and carries on to the next. For patrolling the specified region, the system employs an infrared-based path-following technology.
Using a combination of two HD cameras, it watches each region for potential problems. It can listen in on the noise in the area.
23. IOT Flood Monitoring & Alerting System:
Flooding is usually caused by an excess of water in a water system, such as a lake or a river overflowing. We employ a Raspberry Pi with water sensors and rain sensors in this system to predict floods and alert relevant authorities, as well as sound an instant alarm in adjacent communities to instantly relay information about probable floods via IOT.
The water sensors are used to measure the water level in three separate places. In addition, three distinct rain sensors are employed to monitor the amount of rain in those three places. The Raspberry Pi is used to transmit data from these sensors to the IoT.
When flooding conditions are detected, the system calculates the amount of time it will take for a specific area to flood and warns the villages/areas that may be affected. The algorithm also predicts how long it will take for the flood to reach them and gives individuals a deadline so they can leave in time.
24. IOT Prison Break Monitoring & Alerting System:
A prisoner tracking system that uses IoT to identify prison break-ins and immediately notify authorities. It accomplishes the task using technology, the system employs a microcontroller-based circuit.
To detect their presence on the premises, we deploy RF trackers on each convict. The two central monitoring devices are utilized to scan all detainees based on data given to them and to keep track of each prisoner at all times.
Each prisoner is fitted with an rf tracker that wirelessly transmits a unique prisoner code. The centralized system is unable to receive a prisoner’s code when he or she leaves the facility. The receiver circuitry informs the controller to take action against a specific prisoner at that point.
The system now sends the prisoner’s information to the officers’ alerting portal, allowing an instant alarm to be sent out for the prisoner to be apprehended before he gets more than 50 meters from the institution.
25. Smart Floor Cleaner Robot Using Android:
The bot uses a wireless robotic cleaning system to make floor cleaning simple and quick. A transmitter app is part of the system. This app runs on an Android phone and allows the user to send commands based on their input. The transmitter transmits movement commands to the robot based on these commands.
The transmitter is an Android phone that the user can use to send commands to the robot. The robot is made up of two cleaning pads and a water sprayer for thorough cleaning. For the cleaning phase, the robot includes two motorized rotating cleaning scrubs.
After receiving the android’s movement directions. When using a Bluetooth receiver to receive movement orders from an Android device. When the commands are received, the microcontroller decodes them and then activates the motors to accomplish the desired motion.
The user of the Android app can even operate the sprayer and cleaner mechanism. This makes floor cleaning a simple, quick, and painless operation.
26. IOT Paralysis Patient Health Care Project:
The IoT-based paralysis patient health care system is intended to assist the patient in communicating various signals. To achieve this functionality, the system takes use of microcontroller-based circuitry. A hand motion recognition circuit and a receiver and transmitter circuit are used.
The hand motion circuit uses an accelerometer and gyro to detect hand movements and then transmits that information wirelessly over rf to the receiver system.
The receiver system is meant to receive, process, and show these commands on the LCD, as well as transfer the data online to the IOT gecko server. To obtain the intended output, the IOT gecko server subsequently presents this information online.
27. RFID-Based Smart Master Card For Bus Train Metro Ticketing:
Each mode of transportation has its smart card, making it difficult for users to handle multiple smart cards for different modes of transportation. As a result, we suggest a smart master card system that connects all of these systems and enables a single master card and centralized system for all modes of transportation.
We employ three RFID scanners to showcase this notion as bus, train, and metro train smart card scanners, respectively. We now use three smart cards, one for the bus, one for the train, and one for the metro, which works specifically on each system.
We now provide a fourth card, the master smart card, which can be used on all three scanners, allowing the user to utilize any mode of transportation they want with the same card. The system also allows for the selection of a source and destination and deducts a specific amount from the user’s master card as a result.
28. Smart Room Temperature Controller Atmega:
Even if the outside temperature varies, there is a need for technology to control the temperature of the room. This problem is solved by our project Smart Room Temperature Controller Using Atmega Microcontroller.
Two loads are used in this project. It detects the presence of a heater by using a bulb, and it detects the presence of a cooler by using a fan. By continuously cycling between heater and cooler, i.e. turning on/off the bulb and the fan, the system enables the maintenance of a set temperature limit.
The set temperature limit is displayed on the LCD screen once the device is turned on. Two push buttons for boosting and reducing the temperature are also included in the system. The mechanism turns on the bulb if the room temperature falls below the designated value.
Similarly, if the room temperature rises above the predetermined limit, the system activates the chiller. As a result, by cycling between the fan and the bulb, the system strives to preserve the user-set temperature limit.
29. Fully Automated Solar Grass Cutter:
The fully automated solar grass cutter is a fully automated grass-cutting robotic vehicle that is fueled by solar energy and capable of fully automated grass cutting without the need for human input.
The vehicle movement motors and the lawn cutter motor are both powered by 6V batteries. We also charge the battery using a solar panel, eliminating the need for external charging. The grass cutter and vehicle motors are connected to a microprocessor from the 8051 family, which regulates the operation of all the motors.
It’s also connected to an ultrasonic sensor that detects objects. If no barrier is identified, the microcontroller sends the vehicle motors forward. When an obstruction is detected, the ultrasonic sensor alerts the microprocessor, which then turns off the grass cutter motor to prevent any damage to the object, people, or animal.
The microcontroller then twists the robotic until it is clear of the obstacle, after which it drives the grass cutter forward once more.
30. Ultrasonic Blind Walking Stick:
A technologically enhanced blind stick that allows visually impaired people to maneuver with ease. The blind stick has an ultrasonic sensor, as well as light and water sensors.
The ultrasonic sensors in our suggested technology are used to identify impediments ahead utilizing ultrasonic waves. When the sensor detects obstructions, it sends the information to the microcontroller.
The data is then processed by the microcontroller, which determines whether the impediment is close enough. If the obstacle isn’t close enough, the circuit has no effect. If the impediment is nearby, the microcontroller sends a signal to the buzzer to sound.
It also detects water and informs the blind by sounding a different buzzer. Another aspect is that it helps the blind to detect whether the room is dark or light.
One additional sophisticated feature of the device is that it can help the blind find their stick if they forget where they put it. For this, a wireless rf-based remote is used. When the remote button is pressed, a buzzer on the stick sounds, assisting the blind person in finding their stick.
As a result, this device can detect obstacles as well as locate a misplaced stick for visually impaired persons.
31. Anti-Drowning System With Remote Alert:
This system is extremely useful in saving the life of someone who is drowning in water. This is accomplished by telling the lifeguard of any individual in the water’s cardiac rate.
The heart rate will be monitored by our system. It will then communicate using RF, with a range of roughly 5-6 meters on land and 2-4 meters underwater. The system contains a transmitting and receiving circuit for this.
The lifeguard uses the receiving circuit to get information about the individual’s heart rate, while the person in the water uses the transmitter circuit. The transmitter circuit employs a microcontroller from the AVR family that is connected to an LCD. The heart rate level is displayed on this LCD panel to the lifeguard.
A 12V battery powers this transmitter circuit. AVR family microcontroller and RF receiver are also included in the receiver circuit, which is powered by a 12V transformer. A heart rate sensor is also included in the system.
This heart rate sensor can be attached to a person’s hand or head while they are submerged, allowing them to track their heart rate. A buzzer and an LED light are also included in the receiver circuit. When a person’s heartbeat rate quickens or drops too low, the LED light and buzzer turn on.
32. Soldier Health & Position Tracking System:
The soldier Health and Position Tracking System allows military personnel to track a soldier’s current GPS location as well as monitor his or her health, including body temperature and heartbeats.
The system also has a function that allows soldiers to manually request assistance or send a distress signal to military personnel if they are in distress. The GPS modem provides the latitude and longitude position together with the link pattern, allowing the military to follow the soldier’s present location.
The technology is extremely useful for gathering information about a soldier’s condition and offering immediate assistance.
33. Wildlife Observation Robot Using Rf:
The RF remote is used to control the robotic vehicle on which the night vision camera is mounted in the wildlife observation robot with a night vision capability system.
This enables the user to remotely maneuver the robotic vehicle and obtain the desired angle of these wild creatures. This video was captured and can be viewed on a computer for future reference. As a result, wildlife observers may now securely film wild creatures up close by operating this robotic vehicle from a safe distance.
This system uses a microcontroller from the 8051 series to process user data sent through the rf transmitter circuit. The rf receiver fitted on the robotic vehicle receives these signals. The data is subsequently processed by the microprocessor, which ultimately sends signals to the drive motors.
The motors are now controlled by the driver motors, which provide necessary signal outputs to drive the vehicle movement motors. When the microcontroller receives the camera directional change signal, it sends it to the camera motor so that the appropriate camera angle can be achieved.
With the help of an RF remote, this wildlife observation robot with night vision capability can get a closer look at wildlife.
34. Fuel theft detection:
This study focuses on the issue of gasoline theft and proposes a viable solution to the problem. It detects the amount of fuel in the tank and presents it to the user visually. It determines whether or not the vehicle has been turned off.
When the gasoline level drops while the car is turned off, an event is triggered, which is tied to the message-sending functionality. Through ADC, a fuel level measuring gauge will be connected to C. The amount of fuel will be displayed on the LCD. C will be connected to a GSM modem with a SIM card.
If the fuel level in the tank drops while the car is turned off, a text message will be sent to the user’s phone.
35. Fire Fighter Robot Project:
This complex invention allows a user to remotely manage a firefighter robot equipped with a water tank and pistol to put out fires. For this, the system employs an Rf remote for remote control, as well as a microcontroller circuit based on rf received for controlling the robotic vehicle and water pump.
The radio frequency (RF) based remote sends and receives orders from the user via RF signals. The data commands are now decoded by the receiver circuit. It then sends the information to the microcontroller. The microprocessor now processes these commands and sends them to the vehicle motors, which ultimately drive the car in the desired directions.
It also controls the water pump motor and the pump direction motor, spraying water according to the user’s commands. By standing at a safe distance, the user may control the robot and extinguish the fire. The robot may be controlled by the remote within an 8-meter range.
36. Street light automatic intensity controller:
In the current system, highways are typically lit by HID (High-Intensity Lamps), which require a significant amount of electricity.
As a result, the “Street light automatic intensity controller” system overcomes these constraints by using LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) as a light source, which can be altered and controlled in intensity according to requirements.
To achieve the desired effects, a microcontroller from the 8051 families is utilized, which has programmable instructions to regulate the intensity by producing pulse width modulated signals, which drive a MOSFET to switch LEDs.
As a result, the intensity rises during peak hours and progressively decreases as the night progresses. It turns off fully at 6 a.m. and returns at 6 p.m. This method is repeated every day in the same way.
37. AC Power Strength Controller System:
The project’s goal is to use the notion of thyristor firing angle control to manage AC power. A keypad can be used to enter the required percentage of power supply.
The data is sent to an 8051 microprocessor, which adjusts the load power by initiating the firing angle. A TRIAC is utilized in series with the AC load to match the power to the needed one. The power percentage provided by the user is displayed on an LCD panel.
38. Irrigation System running on Solar Power:
The system is an automatic irrigation system where the irrigation pump is operated from solar energy. It becomes tedious to manually operate the irrigation system and keep monitoring the water level of the soil. Hence the system uses solar power by using photo-voltaic cells instead of commercial electricity.
The project requires an op-amp IC that acts as a comparator and senses the soil moisture level. To measure the soil moisture content two copper wires are inserted into the soil at a certain distance.
The sensors send the data to the microcontroller which is interfaced to the relay driver IC that initiates the relay to operate the pump motor to switch ON/OFF and the status of the pump is displayed on an LCD screen.
39. Fire & Gas Accident Avoider System:
For detection purposes, the system includes fire and gas sensors. If the system detects a gas leak, it cuts off the gas supply (which is displayed using a stepper motor) to prevent further gas leaking.
To suck out all of the leaking gas, the system now activates an exhaust fan. The system also sends an SMS message via a GSM modem to the authorized user informing them of the event.
A fire sensor has been added to the system to detect flames. When a fire is detected, the system turns off the gas supply, keeping the fire from spreading and preventing any potential explosions.
Now the mechanism activates the exhaust fan to suck out all of the smoke, allowing anyone trapped in the fire to see and escape. It also communicates information about the occurrence to the authorized user, allowing the user to take immediate action.
40. Mini Audio Amplifier Project:
All music systems on the market include an amplifier as a basic component. This intermediate circuitry is required for us to hear crystal clear music from our music systems.
The Mini Audio Amplifier project is a scaled-down version of such systems. With the help of an audio jack, this is simple to implement and test. An audio transmitter device, such as a cell phone, transmits low-amplitude signals over a 3.5mm audio jack wire.
If such a signal is sent to the speaker, the sound produced will be incredibly low, and it may not even be discernible to a close person. As a result, the audio input was routed to the amplifier circuitry. This audio signal is amplified by the amplifier circuitry.
The speaker’s input receives the amplified form of the audio input, which is subsequently converted into sound output. The audio frequency range is between 20Hz and 20KHz. The goal of an audio amplifier is to boost the amplitude of signals in this frequency band while suppressing the others.
As a result, the audio amplifier circuitry is set up to multiply the audible range signals with a positive gain factor. We may change the gain factor or volume of the audio amplifier using two potentiometers.
41. IOT Air & Sound Pollution Monitoring System:
Air and sound pollution is a growing issue these days. It is necessary to monitor air quality and keep it under control for a better future and healthy living for all. Here we propose an air quality and a sound pollution monitoring system that allows us to monitor and check live air quality and sound pollution in a particular area through IOT.
The system uses air sensors to sense the presence of harmful gases/compounds in the air and constantly transmit this data to the microcontroller. Also, the system keeps measuring the sound level and reports it to the online server over IOT.
The sensors interact with a microcontroller that processes this data and transmits it over the internet. This allows authorities to monitor air pollution in different areas and take action against it.
Also, authorities can keep a watch on the noise pollution near schools, hospitals, and no-honking areas, and if the system detects air quality and noise issues it alerts authorities so they can take measures to control the issue.
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